Home Community Check Out KNOWNO (Know When You Don’t Know): A Framework that Provides Robots with the Ability To Know When They Don’t Know, Enabling Them to Ask For Assist in Ambiguous Situations

Check Out KNOWNO (Know When You Don’t Know): A Framework that Provides Robots with the Ability To Know When They Don’t Know, Enabling Them to Ask For Assist in Ambiguous Situations

Check Out KNOWNO (Know When You Don’t Know): A Framework that Provides Robots with the Ability To Know When They Don’t Know, Enabling Them to Ask For Assist in Ambiguous Situations

Large Language Models (LLMs) are known for his or her human-like capabilities to generate content, answer questions, and that too with linguistic accuracy and consistency. These models use deep learning techniques and have been trained on large amounts of textual data to perform a lot of Natural Language Processing, Natural Language Understanding, and Natural Language Generation tasks. LLMs are capable of produce coherent text quickly while understanding and responding to prompts and even learn from a small variety of instances. 

For the event of an efficient robot, good reasoning skills and the power to look out for uncertainty and unique environments is most essential. Though LLMs recently have shown some great improvements in these fields, a limitation of hallucinations still exists. It happens when an AI model produces results which can be different from what was anticipated and principally gives results that weren’t even within the training data the model was trained on. To handle the challenge, recently, a team of researchers from Princeton University and Google DeepMind have introduced a framework called Know When You Don’t Know (KNOWNO). KNOWNO solves the difficulty of hallucinations by quantifying and coordinating the uncertainty of LLM-based planners. It makes it possible for robots to acknowledge once they are within the mistaken and request assistance if needed.

KNOWNO has been made to make use of the speculation of Conformal Prediction (CP) in complicated multi-step planning scenarios to offer statistical guarantees on job completion while minimizing the requirement for human input. KNOWNO is able to calculating the degree of uncertainty within the predictions made by the LLM-based planner by applying conformal prediction. The robot can select when to hunt clarification or more information to extend the dependability of its operations using this uncertainty measurement.

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The experiments conducted by the team include real and simulated robot setups with tasks that display various degrees of ambiguity, like linguistic riddles generally known as Winograd schemas, numerical uncertainties, human preferences, and spatial uncertainties. Upon evaluation, the outcomes have shown that KNOWNO outperforms modern baselines which will depend on ensembles or extensive prompt tuning when it comes to improving efficiency and autonomy while providing formal assurances. 

Being a light-weight approach for modeling uncertainties that may scale with the expanding capabilities of foundation models, KNOWNO could be utilized with LLMs ‘out of the box’ without the necessity for model finetuning. The most important contribution is summarized as follows.

  1. The authors have used a pre-trained LLM with uncalibrated confidence and a language command to construct a listing of potential actions for the robot’s next move. This strategy makes use of LLMs’ capability to grasp language and produce plans based on directives.
  1. The team has provided theoretical assurances on calibrated confidence for single-step and multi-step planning problems. The robot asks for assistance when essential and completes tasks accurately in 1−ϵ% of instances with a user-specified level of confidence 1−ϵ. This guarantees that the robot asks for help when there may be doubt, increasing the dependability of its activities.
  1. Experiments have confirmed KNOWNO’s capability to deliver statistically guaranteed levels of task accomplishment while requiring 10 to 24% less assistance than baseline methods.

In conclusion, the KNOWNO framework seems promising as it will probably endow robots with the power to know once they don’t know, enabling them to ask for assist in ambiguous situations.

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Tanya Malhotra is a final 12 months undergrad from the University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, pursuing BTech in Computer Science Engineering with a specialization in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
She is a Data Science enthusiast with good analytical and significant pondering, together with an ardent interest in acquiring recent skills, leading groups, and managing work in an organized manner.

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