Home News ChatGPT & Advanced Prompt Engineering: Driving the AI Evolution

ChatGPT & Advanced Prompt Engineering: Driving the AI Evolution

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ChatGPT & Advanced Prompt Engineering: Driving the AI Evolution

OpenAI has been instrumental in developing revolutionary tools just like the OpenAI Gym, designed for training reinforcement algorithms, and GPT-n models. The highlight can also be on DALL-E, an AI model that crafts images from textual inputs. One such model that has garnered considerable attention is OpenAI’s ChatGPT, a shining exemplar within the realm of Large Language Models.

GPT-4: Prompt Engineering

ChatGPT has transformed the chatbot landscape, offering human-like responses to user inputs and expanding its applications across domains – from software development and testing to business communication, and even the creation of poetry.

Within the hands of companies and individuals, GPT-4, as an illustration, could function an inexhaustible knowledge reservoir, proficient in subjects starting from Mathematics and Biology to Legal Studies. Such sophisticated and accessible AI models are poised to redefine the long run of labor, learning, and creativity.

Generative models like GPT-4 can produce latest data based on existing inputs. This distinguishing attribute lets them undertake diverse tasks, including generating text, images, music, and video.

Within the context of ChatGPT and OpenAI models, a prompt is the input that users provide to the models, often in the shape of text. Prompts function the first technique of controlling the output generated by these models, making them crucial for successful and relevant conversations.

The Impact of Prompt Quality

Using well-defined prompts is the important thing to engaging in useful and meaningful conversations with AI systems. Poorly-defined prompts may end up in output that isn’t helpful to the user and will even result in misleading content.

To exhibit the impact of prompt quality, let’s compare two different prompts given to ChatGPT. The primary prompt, poorly-defined and assuming prior knowledge, generates a potentially unhelpful response for the user. Then again, the second prompt provides more context and examples, ensuring a more relevant and comprehensible response.

Prompt 1: “Tell me about Convolutional Neural Networks.”

Response 1: “Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are multi-layer perceptron networks that consist of fully connected layers and pooling layers. They’re commonly utilized in image recognition tasks. The method involves applying filters to input images and downscaling them using pooling layers.”

Prompt 2: “I need to study Convolutional Neural Networks, but I even have no prior knowledge of Artificial Neural Networks. Are you able to please provide a beginner-friendly explanation and an example of how CNNs are utilized in image recognition?”

Response 2: “Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are a kind of neural network primarily used for image recognition tasks. Unlike other neural networks, they leverage convolutional layers and pooling layers to process images. Imagine you may have a picture of a cat. CNNs can discover different features within the image, comparable to whiskers, ears, and tail, by applying filters and downsampling the image using pooling layers. This process makes CNNs highly effective for recognizing objects in images.”

By comparing the 2 responses, it is clear that a well-defined prompt results in a more relevant and user-friendly response. Prompt design and engineering are growing disciplines that aim to optimize the output quality of AI models like ChatGPT.

In the next sections of this text, we are going to delve into the realm of advanced methodologies geared toward refining Large Language Models (LLMs), comparable to prompt engineering techniques and tactics. These include few-shot learning, ReAct, chain-of-thought, RAG, and more.

Advanced Engineering Techniques

Before we proceed, it is important to know a key issue with LLMs, known as ‘hallucination’. Within the context of LLMs, ‘hallucination’ signifies the tendency of those models to generate outputs that may appear reasonable but should not rooted in factual reality or the given input context.

This problem was starkly highlighted in a recent court case where a defense attorney used ChatGPT for legal research. The AI tool, faltering because of its hallucination problem, cited non-existent legal cases. This misstep had significant repercussions, causing confusion and undermining credibility through the proceedings. This incident serves as a stark reminder of the urgent need to deal with the problem of ‘hallucination’ in AI systems.

Our exploration into prompt engineering techniques goals to enhance these facets of LLMs. By enhancing their efficiency and safety, we pave the best way for progressive applications comparable to information extraction. Moreover, it opens doors to seamlessly integrating LLMs with external tools and data sources, broadening the range of their potential uses.

Zero and Few-Shot Learning: Optimizing with Examples

Generative Pretrained Transformers (GPT-3) marked a crucial turning point in the event of Generative AI models, because it introduced the concept of ‘few-shot learning.’ This method was a game-changer because of its capability of operating effectively without the necessity for comprehensive fine-tuning. The GPT-3 framework is discussed within the paper, “Language Models are Few Shot Learners” where the authors exhibit how the model excels across diverse use cases without necessitating custom datasets or code.

Unlike fine-tuning, which demands continuous effort to unravel various use cases, few-shot models exhibit easier adaptability to a broader array of applications. While fine-tuning might provide robust solutions in some cases, it might be expensive at scale, making the usage of few-shot models a more practical approach, especially when integrated with prompt engineering.

Imagine you are attempting to translate English to French. In few-shot learning, you would supply GPT-3 with just a few translation examples like “sea otter -> loutre de mer”. GPT-3, being the advanced model it’s, is then in a position to proceed providing accurate translations. In zero-shot learning, you would not provide any examples, and GPT-3 would still have the ability to translate English to French effectively.

The term ‘few-shot learning’ comes from the concept that the model is given a limited variety of examples to ‘learn’ from. It is important to notice that ‘learn’ on this context doesn’t involve updating the model’s parameters or weights, somewhat, it influences the model’s performance.

Few Shot Learning From GPT-3 Paper

Few Shot Learning as Demonstrated in GPT-3 Paper

Zero-shot learning takes this idea a step further. In zero-shot learning, no examples of task completion are provided within the model. The model is anticipated to perform well based on its initial training, making this system ideal for open-domain question-answering scenarios comparable to ChatGPT.

In lots of instances, a model proficient in zero-shot learning can perform well when supplied with few-shot and even single-shot examples. This ability to change between zero, single, and few-shot learning scenarios underlines the adaptability of huge models, enhancing their potential applications across different domains.

Zero-shot learning methods have gotten increasingly prevalent. These methods are characterised by their capability to acknowledge objects unseen during training. Here’s a practical example of a Few-Shot Prompt:

"Translate the next English phrases to French:

'sea otter' translates to 'loutre de mer'
'sky' translates to 'ciel'
'What does 'cloud' translate to in French?'"

By providing the model with just a few examples after which posing a matter, we will effectively guide the model to generate the specified output. On this instance, GPT-3 would likely accurately translate ‘cloud’ to ‘nuage’ in French.

We are going to delve deeper into the varied nuances of prompt engineering and its essential role in optimizing model performance during inference. We’ll also have a look at how it might be effectively used to create cost-effective and scalable solutions across a broad array of use cases.

As we further explore the complexity of prompt engineering techniques in GPT models, it is important to spotlight our last post ‘Essential Guide to Prompt Engineering in ChatGPT‘. This guide provides insights into the strategies for instructing AI models effectively across a myriad of use cases.

In our previous discussions, we delved into fundamental prompt methods for giant language models (LLMs) comparable to zero-shot and few-shot learning, in addition to instruction prompting. Mastering these techniques is crucial for navigating the more complex challenges of prompt engineering that we’ll explore here.

Few-shot learning could be limited because of the restricted context window of most LLMs. Furthermore, without the suitable safeguards, LLMs could be misled into delivering potentially harmful output. Plus, many models struggle with reasoning tasks or following multi-step instructions.

Given these constraints, the challenge lies in leveraging LLMs to tackle complex tasks. An obvious solution is perhaps to develop more advanced LLMs or refine existing ones, but that would entail substantial effort. So, the query arises: how can we optimize current models for improved problem-solving?

Equally fascinating is the exploration of how this system interfaces with creative applications in Unite AI’s ‘Mastering AI Art: A Concise Guide to Midjourney and Prompt Engineering‘ which describes how the fusion of art and AI may end up in awe-inspiring art.

Chain-of-thought Prompting

Chain-of-thought prompting leverages the inherent auto-regressive properties of huge language models (LLMs), which excel at predicting the following word in a given sequence. By prompting a model to elucidate its thought process, it induces a more thorough, methodical generation of ideas, which tends to align closely with accurate information. This alignment stems from the model’s inclination to process and deliver information in a thoughtful and ordered manner, akin to a human expert walking a listener through a posh concept. An easy statement like “walk me through step-by-step …” is usually enough to trigger this more verbose, detailed output.

Zero-shot Chain-of-thought Prompting

While conventional CoT prompting requires pre-training with demonstrations, an emerging area is zero-shot CoT prompting. This approach, introduced by Kojima et al. (2022), innovatively adds the phrase “Let’s think step-by-step” to the unique prompt.

Let’s create a sophisticated prompt where ChatGPT is tasked with summarizing key takeaways from AI and NLP research papers.

On this demonstration, we are going to use the model’s ability to know and summarize complex information from academic texts. Using the few-shot learning approach, let’s teach ChatGPT to summarize key findings from AI and NLP research papers:

1. Paper Title: "Attention Is All You Need"
Key Takeaway: Introduced the transformer model, emphasizing the importance of attention mechanisms over recurrent layers for sequence transduction tasks.

2. Paper Title: "BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding"
Key Takeaway: Introduced BERT, showcasing the efficacy of pre-training deep bidirectional models, thereby achieving state-of-the-art results on various NLP tasks.

Now, with the context of those examples, summarize the important thing findings from the next paper:

Paper Title: "Prompt Engineering in Large Language Models: An Examination"

This prompt not only maintains a transparent chain of thought but additionally makes use of a few-shot learning approach to guide the model. It ties into our keywords by specializing in the AI and NLP domains, specifically tasking ChatGPT to perform a posh operation which is expounded to prompt engineering: summarizing research papers.

ReAct Prompt

React, or “Reason and Act”, was introduced by Google within the paper “ReAct: Synergizing Reasoning and Acting in Language Models“, and revolutionized how language models interact with a task, prompting the model to dynamically generate each verbal reasoning traces and task-specific actions.

Imagine a human chef within the kitchen: they not only perform a series of actions (cutting vegetables, boiling water, stirring ingredients) but additionally engage in verbal reasoning or inner speech (“now that the vegetables are chopped, I should put the pot on the stove”). This ongoing mental dialogue helps in strategizing the method, adapting to sudden changes (“I’m out of olive oil, I’ll use butter as a substitute”), and remembering the sequence of tasks. React mimics this human ability, enabling the model to quickly learn latest tasks and make robust decisions, similar to a human would under latest or uncertain circumstances.

React can tackle hallucination, a typical issue with Chain-of-Thought (CoT) systems. CoT, although an efficient technique, lacks the capability to interact with the external world, which could potentially result in fact hallucination and error propagation. React, nonetheless, compensates for this by interfacing with external sources of data. This interaction allows the system to not only validate its reasoning but additionally update its knowledge based on the newest information from the external world.

The basic working of React could be explained through an instance from HotpotQA, a task requiring high-order reasoning. On receiving a matter, the React model breaks down the query into manageable parts and creates a plan of motion. The model generates a reasoning trace (thought) and identifies a relevant motion. It might resolve to look up information in regards to the Apple Distant on an external source, like Wikipedia (motion), and updates its understanding based on the obtained information (remark). Through multiple thought-action-observation steps, ReAct can retrieve information to support its reasoning while refining what it must retrieve next.

Note:

HotpotQA is a dataset, derived from Wikipedia, composed of 113k question-answer pairs designed to coach AI systems in complex reasoning, as questions necessitate reasoning over multiple documents to reply. Then again, CommonsenseQA 2.0, constructed through gamification, includes 14,343 yes/no questions and is designed to challenge AI’s understanding of common sense, because the questions are intentionally crafted to mislead AI models.

The method could look something like this:

  1. Thought: “I want to look for the Apple Distant and its compatible devices.”
  2. Motion: Searches “Apple Distant compatible devices” on an external source.
  3. Commentary: Obtains an inventory of devices compatible with the Apple Distant from the search results.
  4. Thought: “Based on the search results, several devices, other than the Apple Distant, can control this system it was originally designed to interact with.”

The result’s a dynamic, reasoning-based process that may evolve based on the data it interacts with, resulting in more accurate and reliable responses.

ReAct Prompt technique paper reference image

Comparative visualization of 4 prompting methods – Standard, Chain-of-Thought, Act-Only, and ReAct, in solving HotpotQA and AlfWorld (https://arxiv.org/pdf/2210.03629.pdf)

Designing React agents is a specialized task, given its ability to attain intricate objectives. As an example, a conversational agent, built on the bottom React model, incorporates conversational memory to supply richer interactions. Nonetheless, the complexity of this task is streamlined by tools comparable to Langchain, which has develop into the usual for designing these agents.

Context-faithful Prompting

The paper ‘Context-faithful Prompting for Large Language Models‘ underscores that while LLMs have shown substantial success in knowledge-driven NLP tasks, their excessive reliance on parametric knowledge can lead them astray in context-sensitive tasks. For instance, when a language model is trained on outdated facts, it might produce incorrect answers if it overlooks contextual clues.

This problem is clear in instances of information conflict, where the context incorporates facts differing from the LLM’s pre-existing knowledge. Consider an instance where a Large Language Model (LLM), primed with data before the 2022 World Cup, is given a context indicating that France won the tournament. Nonetheless, the LLM, counting on its pretrained knowledge, continues to say that the previous winner, i.e., the team that won within the 2018 World Cup, continues to be the reigning champion. This demonstrates a classic case of ‘knowledge conflict’.

In essence, knowledge conflict in an LLM arises when latest information provided within the context contradicts the pre-existing knowledge the model has been trained on. The model’s tendency to lean on its prior training somewhat than the newly provided context may end up in incorrect outputs. Then again, hallucination in LLMs is the generation of responses that could appear plausible but should not rooted within the model’s training data or the provided context.

One other issue arises when the provided context doesn’t contain enough information to reply a matter accurately, a situation often known as prediction with abstention. As an example, if an LLM is asked in regards to the founding father of Microsoft based on a context that doesn’t provide this information, it should ideally abstain from guessing.

Knowledge Conflict and the Power of Abstention examples

More Knowledge Conflict and the Power of Abstention Examples

To enhance the contextual faithfulness of LLMs in these scenarios, the researchers proposed a spread of prompting strategies. These strategies aim to make the LLMs’ responses more attuned to the context somewhat than counting on their encoded knowledge.

One such strategy is to border prompts as opinion-based questions, where the context is interpreted as a narrator’s statement, and the query pertains to this narrator’s opinion. This approach refocuses the LLM’s attention to the presented context somewhat than resorting to its pre-existing knowledge.

Adding counterfactual demonstrations to prompts has also been identified as an efficient approach to increase faithfulness in cases of information conflict. These demonstrations present scenarios with false facts, which guide the model to pay closer attention to the context to supply accurate responses.

Instruction fine-tuning

Instruction fine-tuning is a supervised learning phase that capitalizes on providing the model with specific instructions, as an illustration, “Explain the excellence between a sunrise and a sunset.” The instruction is paired with an appropriate answer, something along the lines of, “A sunrise refers back to the moment the sun appears over the horizon within the morning, while a sunset marks the purpose when the sun disappears below the horizon within the evening.” Through this method, the model essentially learns adhere to and execute instructions.

This approach significantly influences the technique of prompting LLMs, resulting in a radical shift within the prompting style. An instruction fine-tuned LLM permits immediate execution of zero-shot tasks, providing seamless task performance. If the LLM is yet to be fine-tuned, a few-shot learning approach could also be required, incorporating some examples into your prompt to guide the model toward the specified response.

“Instruction Tuning with GPT-4′ discusses the try to use GPT-4 to generate instruction-following data for fine-tuning LLMs. They used a wealthy dataset, comprising 52,000 unique instruction-following entries in each English and Chinese.

The dataset plays a pivotal role in instruction tuning LLaMA models, an open-source series of LLMs, leading to enhanced zero-shot performance on latest tasks. Noteworthy projects comparable to Stanford Alpaca have effectively employed Self-Instruct tuning, an efficient approach to aligning LLMs with human intent, leveraging data generated by advanced instruction-tuned teacher models.

Advanced Prompt Engineering Technique Research paper reference

The first aim of instruction tuning research is to spice up the zero and few-shot generalization abilities of LLMs. Further data and model scaling can provide beneficial insights. With the present GPT-4 data size at 52K and the bottom LLaMA model size at 7 billion parameters, there is big potential to gather more GPT-4 instruction-following data and mix it with other data sources resulting in the training of larger LLaMA models for superior performance.

STaR: Bootstrapping Reasoning With Reasoning

The potential of LLMs is especially visible in complex reasoning tasks comparable to mathematics or commonsense question-answering. Nonetheless, the technique of inducing a language model to generate rationales—a series of step-by-step justifications or “chain-of-thought”—has its set of challenges. It often requires the development of huge rationale datasets or a sacrifice in accuracy because of the reliance on only few-shot inference.

“Self-Taught Reasoner” (STaR) offers an progressive solution to those challenges. It utilizes an easy loop to constantly improve a model’s reasoning capability. This iterative process starts with generating rationales to reply multiple questions using just a few rational examples. If the generated answers are incorrect, the model tries again to generate a rationale, this time giving the proper answer. The model is then fine-tuned on all of the rationales that resulted in correct answers, and the method repeats.

Star prompt technique reeach paper reference

STaR methodology, demonstrating its fine-tuning loop and a sample rationale generation on CommonsenseQA dataset (https://arxiv.org/pdf/2203.14465.pdf)

For example this with a practical example, consider the query “What could be used to hold a small dog?” with answer decisions starting from a swimming pool to a basket. The STaR model generates a rationale, identifying that the reply should be something able to carrying a small dog and landing on the conclusion that a basket, designed to carry things, is the proper answer.

STaR’s approach is exclusive in that it leverages the language model’s pre-existing reasoning ability. It employs a technique of self-generation and refinement of rationales, iteratively bootstrapping the model’s reasoning capabilities. Nonetheless, STaR’s loop has its limitations. The model may fail to unravel latest problems within the training set since it receives no direct training signal for problems it fails to unravel. To handle this issue, STaR introduces rationalization. For every problem the model fails to reply accurately, it generates a brand new rationale by providing the model with the proper answer, which enables the model to reason backward.

STaR, due to this fact, stands as a scalable bootstrapping method that permits models to learn to generate their very own rationales while also learning to unravel increasingly difficult problems. The appliance of STaR has shown promising ends in tasks involving arithmetic, math word problems, and commonsense reasoning. On CommonsenseQA, STaR improved over each a few-shot baseline and a baseline fine-tuned to directly predict answers and performed comparably to a model that’s 30× larger.

Tagged Context Prompts

The concept of ‘Tagged Context Prompts‘ revolves around providing the AI model with a further layer of context by tagging certain information throughout the input. These tags essentially act as signposts for the AI, guiding it on interpret the context accurately and generate a response that’s each relevant and factual.

Imagine you’re having a conversation with a friend a couple of certain topic, as an instance ‘chess’. You make an announcement after which tag it with a reference, comparable to ‘(source: Wikipedia)’. Now, your friend, who on this case is the AI model, knows exactly where your information is coming from. This approach goals to make the AI’s responses more reliable by reducing the danger of hallucinations, or the generation of false facts.

A singular aspect of tagged context prompts is their potential to enhance the ‘contextual intelligence’ of AI models. As an example, the paper demonstrates this using a various set of questions extracted from multiple sources, like summarized Wikipedia articles on various subjects and sections from a recently published book. The questions are tagged, providing the AI model with additional context in regards to the source of the data.

This extra layer of context can prove incredibly helpful in terms of generating responses that should not only accurate but additionally adhere to the context provided, making the AI’s output more reliable and trustworthy.

Conclusion: A Look into Promising Techniques and Future Directions

OpenAI’s ChatGPT showcases the uncharted potential of Large Language Models (LLMs) in tackling complex tasks with remarkable efficiency. Advanced techniques comparable to few-shot learning, ReAct prompting, chain-of-thought, and STaR, allow us to harness this potential across a plethora of applications. As we dig deeper into the nuances of those methodologies, we discover how they’re shaping the landscape of AI, offering richer and safer interactions between humans and machines.

Despite the challenges comparable to knowledge conflict, over-reliance on parametric knowledge, and potential for hallucination, these AI models, with the fitting prompt engineering, have proven to be transformative tools. Instruction fine-tuning, context-faithful prompting, and integration with external data sources further amplify their capability to reason, learn, and adapt.

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