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Reasoning and reliability in AI

Reasoning and reliability in AI

To ensure that natural language to be an efficient type of communication, the parties involved have to find a way to know words and their context, assume that the content is essentially shared in good faith and is trustworthy, reason concerning the information being shared, after which apply it to real-world scenarios. MIT PhD students interning with the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab — Athul Paul Jacob SM ’22, Maohao Shen SM ’23, Victor Butoi, and Andi Peng SM ’23 — are working to attack each step of this process that’s baked into natural language models, in order that the AI systems may be more dependable and accurate for users.

To attain this, Jacob’s research strikes at the guts of existing natural language models to enhance the output, using game theory. His interests, he says, are two-fold: “One is knowing how humans behave, using the lens of multi-agent systems and language understanding, and the second thing is, ‘How do you employ that as an insight to construct higher AI systems?’” His work stems from the board game “Diplomacy,” where his research team developed a system that might learn and predict human behaviors and negotiate strategically to realize a desired, optimal final result.

“This was a game where it is advisable construct trust; it is advisable communicate using language. You should also play against six other players at the identical time, which were very different from all of the sorts of task domains people were tackling up to now,” says Jacob, referring to other games like poker and GO that researchers put to neural networks. “In doing so, there have been a whole lot of research challenges. One was, ‘How do you model humans? How do you recognize whether when humans are inclined to act irrationally?’” Jacob and his research mentors — including Associate Professor Jacob Andreas and Assistant Professor Gabriele Farina of the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), and the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab’s Yikang Shen — recast the issue of language generation as a two-player game.

Using “generator” and “discriminator” models, Jacob’s team developed a natural language system to provide answers to questions after which observe the answers and determine in the event that they are correct. In the event that they are, the AI system receives some extent; if not, no point is rewarded. Language models notoriously are inclined to hallucinate, making them less trustworthy; this no-regret learning algorithm collaboratively takes a natural language model and encourages the system’s answers to be more truthful and reliable, while keeping the solutions near the pre-trained language model’s priors. Jacob says that using this method along with a smaller language model could, likely, make it competitive with the identical performance of a model over and over greater.  

Once a language model generates a result, researchers ideally want its confidence in its generation to align with its accuracy, but this ceaselessly isn’t the case. Hallucinations can occur with the model reporting high confidence when it needs to be low. Maohao Shen and his group, with mentors Gregory Wornell, Sumitomo Professor of Engineering in EECS, and lab researchers with IBM Research Subhro Das, Prasanna Sattigeri, and Soumya Ghosh — are trying to fix this through uncertainty quantification (UQ). “Our project goals to calibrate language models after they are poorly calibrated,” says Shen. Specifically, they’re the classification problem. For this, Shen allows a language model to generate free text, which is then converted right into a multiple-choice classification task. As an illustration, they could ask the model to unravel a math problem after which ask it if the reply it generated is correct as “yes, no, or perhaps.” This helps to find out if the model is over- or under-confident.

Automating this, the team developed a method that helps tune the boldness output by a pre-trained language model. The researchers trained an auxiliary model using the ground-truth information to ensure that their system to find a way to correct the language model. “In case your model is over-confident in its prediction, we’re in a position to detect it and make it less confident, and vice versa,” explains Shen. The team evaluated their technique on multiple popular benchmark datasets to point out how well it generalizes to unseen tasks to realign the accuracy and confidence of language model predictions. “After training, you may just plug in and apply this method to recent tasks without some other supervision,” says Shen. “The one thing you would like is the info for that recent task.”

Victor Butoi also enhances model capability, but as an alternative, his lab team — which incorporates John Guttag, the Dugald C. Jackson Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering in EECS; lab researchers Leonid Karlinsky and Rogerio Feris of IBM Research; and lab affiliates Hilde Kühne of the University of Bonn and Wei Lin of Graz University of Technology — is creating techniques to permit vision-language models to reason about what they’re seeing, and is designing prompts to unlock recent learning abilities and understand key phrases.

Compositional reasoning is just one other aspect of the decision-making process that we ask machine-learning models to perform to ensure that them to be helpful in real-world situations, explains Butoi. “You should find a way to take into consideration problems compositionally and solve subtasks,” says Butoi, “like, for those who’re saying the chair is to the left of the person, it is advisable recognize each the chair and the person. You should understand directions.” After which once the model understands “left,” the research team wants the model to find a way to reply other questions involving “left.”

Surprisingly, vision-language models don’t reason well about composition, Butoi explains, but they may be helped to, using a model that may “lead the witness”, for those who will. The team developed a model that was tweaked using a method called low-rank adaptation of huge language models (LoRA) and trained on an annotated dataset called Visual Genome, which has objects in a picture and arrows denoting relationships, like directions. On this case, the trained LoRA model could be guided to say something about “left” relationships, and this caption output would then be used to offer context and prompt the vision-language model, making it a “significantly easier task,” says Butoi.

On the earth of robotics, AI systems also engage with their surroundings using computer vision and language. The settings may range from warehouses to the house. Andi Peng and mentors MIT’s H.N. Slater Professor in Aeronautics and Astronautics Julie Shah and Chuang Gan, of the lab and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, are specializing in assisting individuals with physical constraints, using virtual worlds. For this, Peng’s group is developing two embodied AI models — a “human” that needs support and a helper agent — in a simulated environment called ThreeDWorld. Specializing in human/robot interactions, the team leverages semantic priors captured by large language models to help the helper AI to infer what abilities the “human” agent won’t find a way to do and the motivation behind actions of the “human,” using natural language. The team’s trying to strengthen the helper’s sequential decision-making, bidirectional communication, ability to know the physical scene, and the way best to contribute.

“Plenty of people think that AI programs needs to be autonomous, but I believe that a crucial a part of the method is that we construct robots and systems for humans, and we would like to convey human knowledge,” says Peng. “We don’t desire a system to do something in a weird way; we would like them to do it in a human way that we will understand.”


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